Abraham Lincoln – the Sixteenth and most reputed president of United States of America.
Abraham was born on 12 February 1809 near Hodgenville, Kentucky. In his childhood at a little age of seven his family moved to Indiana after that he grew up on the edge of Western frontier in Kentucky and Indiana. Most of time he spent on working his fathers’ farm. But when he was not working he read voraciously. Although he had very little formal education.
Lincoln’s “manic” intellect, his red eyed sight and tousle haired was recalled by a childhood friend of him as he pored over in books for late nights. In 1828, in his teen age, he start working at a laden flat-boat from Mississippi River to New Orleans, His first big city visited was Louisiana, from where he walked back home. After two years, His father moved the family to Illinois due to health and finance troubles. After moving away from home, before selling his stake he was the co-owner of a general store for several years and in the War of Black Hawk of 1832, He was enlisted as a militia caption to defend Illinois.
Black Hawk, a sauf chief, believed that by a land deal recently done he had been swindled and sought to resettle his old holdings. He was deeply affected by Kellogg’s Grove and Stillman’s run due to sight of corpse-strewn battle fields. During this short conflict Lincoln didn’t seen direct combat. Soon he becomes a reputed caption for integrity and pragmatism. Once during practice maneuvers he faced with a rail fence and to direct his men over it he forget the parade ground instructions, he simply order them to fall out and a minute later reassemble on the other side. At another time, before they executed a wandering Native American as a spy he stopped his men. By stepping in front of their raised muskets, Lincoln is said to have challenged his men to combat for the terrified native’s life. His men stood down.
After the war, He campaigned for a seat on the Illinois State Legislature after studied Law. Although he was not elected in his first attempt. In 1834, Lincoln was preserved and won the position serving as a whig. While practicing as a lawyer He met Mary Todd in Springfield, Illinois. In 1842, over his family’s objections he married to Mary Todd and had four sons. But only one of them lived to adulthood.
Lincoln was a self-described “Prairie Lawyer”, in the early 1850s after one term in Congress from 1847-1849, He focused on his all-embracing Law practice. In 1856, He joined the New Republican Party and the ongoing argument over sectionalism. Lincoln becomes extremely unpopular with Southerners for his platform of antislavery and it also enraged his nomination for presidency in 1860. After Lincoln’s forged in to a prominent figure in national politics due to a series of heated debates with the sponsor of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act (Stephen A. Douglas), Over Slavery and its place in United States.
On 6 November 1860, without the support of a single Southern State Lincoln won the election for president. Bandied about since the 1830s and talk of secession took on a serious new tone. Lincoln’s election was not the only reason for civil war but was among the primary reasons for it. Lincoln felt that to preserve the Union at all cost is the sacred duty of the president of United States, so he decide to fight rather than to let southern states secede. This decision was not based on his feelings towards slavery. His speech’s first draft was ended with an ominous message: “Shall it be peace, or the sword?” His first inaugural address was an appeal to rebellious state, Out of which seven had already seceded, to rejoin the nation.
On 12 April 1861, with the opening bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, The civil war begins and with the decision to resupply the fort Lincoln forced the Confederate hand, which had suddenly become an outpost in a hostile nation. The supply convey was turned away by the Southern Navy and also fire the first shot of the war at Fort Sumter, after a continuous 34 hours battle they forced the Federal defenders to surrender. Lincoln was struggling to find the capable generals for his armies. As He was the President of the United States he legally held the highest rank in the United States armed forces as Commander-in-chief, and through strategic planning, the promotion and demotion of officers and weapons testing, he diligently exercised his authorities. Withered under Lincoln’s watchful eyes, McDowell, Fremont, McClellan, Pope, McDowell again, Rosecrans, Burnside, Buell and many more men failed to bring him success in battle field.
On 1 January 1863, after the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, he issued his famous Emancipation Proclamation. This Proclamation was based on the Right of President to seize the property of those rebellion against the States, Lincoln’s forces had no control over freed slaves in Southern States. Nevertheless, from the Northern Point of view, it changed the tenor of the war by making it a fight to end the slavery and to preserve the Union.
In 1864, Lincoln again ran for President. But he feared that he would not win after years of war. The Quite general Ulysses S. Grant now in command of all of the Union armies, begins to bear fruit and exerted in the final months of the campaign. Lincoln was reelected after significant contribution with a string of heartening victories beyond Lincoln’s Ticket.
On 4 April 1865, in his second inauguration speech, when the war finally ended he set the tone he intended to take. He said his one goal was “Lasting Peace among ourselves”. He called for “Charity for all” and “Malice for none”. The war ended only a month later.
The Lincoln’s administration reverberations could still be felt in a number of policies rather than just to manage the civil war. The united State’s first income tax was established The Revenue act in 1862, largely to pay the costs of total war. The state university System in the country was established under the Morrill Act in 1862, mean while also passed the Homestead Act which encouraged settlement of the West by offering 160 acres of free land to settlers. Lincoln also created the Department of Agriculture and formally instituted the Thanksgiving holiday. Internationally, He navigated a diplomatic crisis in such a way to quell the saber-rattling overtures coming for United States as well as Britain, regarding the seizure of a British ship carrying Confederate envoys. It was known as “Trent affair”. Lincoln restricted the civil liberties of due process and freedom of press in another spill-over from war.
On 14 April 1865, Abraham was shot by Confederate Sympathizer and John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. The Secretary of State William Seward was also grievously injured in this assassination which was a part of larger plot to eliminate the northern Government. With the hope of reconstructing the Nation without Bitterness, Lincoln was died on the Next Day.
Lincoln has been memorized in many city, town and county names including the capitol of Nebraska. His Portraits are also appears on the Currency of United States on two dominations, one is the penny and other is $5 bill. Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C is the most famous and most visited. There are several Sculptures of Lincoln including Ford’s Theatre, Mount Rushmore and Peterson House (where he died) in Washington. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is Located in Springfield. Illinois near Lincoln’s tomb and his home.