In one study, men are more narcissistic than women. Some 350 studies were analysed involving more than 475,000 participants. Men over generations regardless of age got scores higher narcissism.
Narcissism is associated with various interpersonal dysfunction including an inability to maintain healthy relationships long term. Behaving unethical and causing aggression. Narcissism is also linked to a greater tendency to emerge as leader. Three narcissistic aspects were studied:
leadership and authority;
grandiosity and exhibitionism;
and the feeling that things are due.
The big difference between men and women concerned the feeling that things are due. This suggests, the authors note that men are more likely to exploit others and to feel that they are entitled to certain privileges.
Then came the aspect of leadership and authority. Men had more assertiveness and desire for power. But there was no difference in the grandiosity and exhibitionism, which means that both sexes are equally likely to vanity or being themselves. A data analysis on college students of 1990-2015 found no evidence that men and women have become more narcissistic over time.
Social psychology research has shown that personality differences, as narcissism, can come from stereotypes and expectations, socially development. The researchers speculate that the continued lack of women in senior roles may partly result from the disparity between the stereotypes of femininity and leadership. People tend to observe and learn the roles associated with their sex at a young age, and can deal with negative reactions if they deviate from the expectations of society. In particular, women often receive harsh criticism if they are aggressive or authoritarian.
[image Source: the-open-mind.com]
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